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Stage 2

 Reference Sheet R 

Indicator catalogue and ‘SPICED’ indicators

 Indicator catalogue 

The table below lists standard indicators by resilience characteristic that may be useful when the community converts its contextualized image of local resilience into measurable concepts. It is strongly suggested that you do not start Stage 2 with this list, but allow the community to describe what it knows and how it identifies risks before mentioning it. The indicators in the table are not exhaustive; they are derived from a variety of sources, including:

  • The Humanitarian Response Indicator Registry (response‑only indicators are not included). Exact calculations can be found here.

  • Zurich Flood Resilience Indicators (Most have been reformulated to apply generally to all threats).

  • Others (for example, the IFRC Shelter Safety Handbook) (in italics).






 SMART and SPICED indicators 


The commonly used term, ‘SMART’ indicators, denotes the international standard for traditional, typically quantitative indicators that should be:

  • Specific about what is being done, and for whom.

  • Measurable in terms of progress made and achievements.

  • Achievable, attainable and action‑oriented, taking into account the community’s capacities and potential support from outside stakeholders.

  • Relevant, responding to priorities identified by the community.

  • Time‑bound in terms of stating when they are to be achieved.

When strengthening resilience, it is also important to develop ‘SPICED’ indicators. To promote resilience, seek SPICED indicators as you work through the list of descriptions, organized by characteristic.  

See the table "standard indicators by resilience characteristic"

Tip: What’s different about indicators for resilience?

While there are no set rules for selecting indicators, National Societies can refer to several guidelines when they assist and enable communities to identify their own indicators. The ‘SPICED’ approach encourages communities to select indicators based on qualities that closely match the characteristics associated with resilience.  

‘SPICED’ stands for:

  • Subjective – contextualized, will lead to owned indicators and processes.

  • Participatory – inclusive.

  • Interpreted by the community.

  • Communicable to stakeholders.

  • Empowering of the most vulnerable.

  • Disaggregated – with data broken down to reflect the most vulnerable groups.

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